Politics of Exclusion
In late modernity politics of exclusion are becoming an increasingly serious issue (Young, 2003, p. 1). Politics of exclusion is a multidimensional social problem that stems from the issues created by late modernity, namely the massive changes in the labour markets (Young, 2003, p. 1). The multidimensional aspect of the definition refers to exclusion happening in different areas. For example it is possible for exclusion to be “economic, political, and spatial exclusion as well as lack of access to specific areas such as information, medical provision, housing, policing, security, etc.” (Young, 2003, p. 1). The fact that it is a social issue means that the problem isn’t as simple as blaming individuals for their current state and that society has in fact created this “underclass” (Young, 2003, p. 1).
Gated communities connection to the politics of exclusion is fairly obvious. It creates economic, social and spatial exclusion. Blakely and Snyder point out that the economic exclusion presented by gated communities is intentional and that it serves the purpose of denying the underclass from participating (Lynch, 2001-2002, p. 100). The sheer cost of houses in these communities coupled with the additional security fees is enough to ensure that the people living in the community are the people the marketers want. Community agencies are in place to screen and monitor residents in order for the community to maintain the atmosphere that will attract the target audience (Lynch, 2001-2002, p. 104). Clearly this is an attempt to socially exclude anyone that does not hold the same values as the community. The spatial exclusion happens on two levels. The first is that people are simply not allowed to enter the community unless authorized. The next level is the voluntary “withdrawal from fiscal, political, and social involvement with the larger community” by gated communities (Lynch, 2001-2002, p. 110). The later form excludes the larger community from the possible tax money that these communities would provide, meaning the larger community has less funds to sustain itself (Lynch, 2001-2002, p. 111).
The figures below represent how gated communities engage in spacial exclusion